LS.1 The student will demonstrate an understanding of scientific reasoning, logic, and the nature of science by planning and conducting investigations in which:
a) data are organized into tables showing repeated trials and means
b) a classification system is developed based on multiple attributes
c) triple beam and electronic balances, thermometers, metric rulers, graduated cylinders, and probeware are used to gather data
d) models and simulations are constructed and used to illustrate and explain phenomena
e) sources of experimental error are identified
f) dependent variables, independent variables, and constants are identified
g) variables are controlled to test hypotheses and trials are repeated
h) data are organized, communicated through graphical representation, and used to make predictions
i) patterns are identified in data and are interpreted and evaluated
j) current applications are used to reinforce science concepts

These concepts (LS.1) will be infused in lessons throughout the year

LS.2 The students will investigate and understand that all living things are composed of cells.
a) cell structure and organelles
b) similarities and differences between plant and animal cells
c) development of the cell theory

LS.3 The students will investigate and understand that living things show patterns of cellular organization.
a) cells, tissues, organs, and systems
b) patterns of cellular organization and their relationship to life processes in living things

LS.5 The student will investigate and understand the basic physical and chemical processes of photosynthesis and its importance to plant and animal life.
a) energy transfer between sunlight and chlorophyll
b) transformation of water and carbon dioxide into sugar and oxygen

LS.2 The student will investigate and understand that all living things are composed of cells.
d) cell division

LS.12 The student will investigate and understand that organisms reproduce and transmit genetic information to new generations
a) structure and role of DNA
b) the function of genes and chromosomes
c) genotypes and phenotypes
d) characteristics that can and cannot be inherited
e) genetic engineering and its applications
f) historical contributions and significance of discoveries related to genetics

LS.4 The student will investigate and understand how organisms can be classified
a) the distinguishing characteristics of domains of organisms
b) the distinguishing characteristics of kingdoms of organisms
c) the distinguishing characteristics of major animal phyla and plant divisions
d) the characteristics that define a species

LS.13 The student will investigate and understand that populations of organisms change over time.
a) the relationship of mutation, adaptation, natural selection, and extinction
b) evidence of evolution of different species in the fossil record
c) how environmental influences, as well as genetic variation, can lead to diversity of organisms

LS.6 The students will investigate and understand that organisms within an ecosystem are dependent on one another and on nonliving components of the environment.
a) the carbon, water, and nitrogen cycles
b) interactions resulting in a flow of energy and matter throughout the system
d) energy flow in food webs and energy pyramids

LS.7 The student will investigate and understand that interactions exist among members of a population.
a) competition, cooperation, social hierarchy, territorial imperative
b) influence of behavior on a population

LS.5 The student will investigate and understand the basic physical and chemical processes of photosynthesis and its importance to plant and animal life
c) photosynthesis as the foundation of virtually all food webs.

LS. 8 The student will investigate and understand interactions among populations in a biological community
a) the relationships among producers, consumers, and decomposers in food webs
b) the relationship between predators and prey
c) competition and cooperation
d) symbiotic relationships
e) niches

LS.6 The students will investigate and understand that organisms within an ecosystem are dependent on one another and on nonliving components of the environment
c) complex relationships within terrestrial, freshwater, and marine ecosystems

LS.9 The student will investigate and understand how organisms adapt to biotic and abiotic factors in an ecosystem.
a) differences between ecosystems and biomes
b) characteristics of land, marine, and freshwater ecosystems
c) adaptations that enable organisms to survive within a specific ecosystem.

LS.10 The student will investigate and understand that ecosystems, communities, populations, and organisms are dynamic, change over time, and respond to daily, seasonal, and long-term changes in their environment
a) phototropism, hibernation, and dormancy
b) factors that increase or decrease population size
c) eutrophication, climate changes, and catastrophic disturbances

LS.11 The student will investigate and understand the relationships between ecosystem dynamics and human activity
a) food production and harvest
b) change in habitat size, quality, or structure
c) change in species competition
d) population disturbances and factors that threaten or enhance species survival
e) environmental issues.