Middle School Instrumental Music, Beginning Level

The standards for Middle School Instrumental Music, Beginning Level enable students to begin receiving instruction on wind, percussion, or string instruments of their choice with guidance from the music teacher. Instruction may begin at any middle school grade level. Students demonstrate proper care of the instrument and become familiar with the technology of the instrument. They demonstrate basic positions, fingerings, and tone production, and they count, read, and perform music at Solo Literature Grade Levels 1 and 2 of the Virginia Band and Orchestra Directors Association (VBODA). Students begin to describe, respond to, interpret, and evaluate works of music and create basic variations of simple melodies. They investigate career options in music. Students may use standard method books in either homogeneous or heterogeneous class settings. Students are provided with opportunities to participate in local, district, and regional events.

Music Theory/Literacy

  1. MIB.1  The student will echo, read, and notate music, including
    1. identifying, defining, and using basic standard notation for pitch, rhythm, meter,

articulation, dynamics, and other elements of music; and

    1. singing selected lines from music being studied.
  1. MIB.2  The student will echo, read, and perform rhythms and rhythmic patterns, including whole notes, half notes, quarter notes, eighth notes, dotted half notes, dotted quarter notes, and corresponding rests.
  2. MIB.3  The student will identify and demonstrate half-step and whole-step patterns.
  3. MIB.4  The student will identify, read, and perform music in simple meters ( , , , C).
  4. MIB.5  The student will identify and notate key signatures of scales and literature being performed.
  5. MIB.6  The student will read, notate, and perform scales, including
    1. wind/mallet student—one-octave ascending and descending concert F, B-flat, E-flat, and

A-flat major scales and small chromatic patterns; and

    1. string student—one-octave ascending and descending G and D major scales and a D

harmonic minor scale.

  1. MIB.7  The student will identify and perform music written in binary form.
  2. MIB.8  The student will use music composition as a means of expression by
    1. composing a four-measure rhythmic-melodic variation; and
    2. notating the composition in standard notation, using contemporary technology.
  3. MIB.9  The student will define and apply music terminology found in the music literature being studied.

Performance

  1. MIB.10  The student will demonstrate preparatory instrumental basics and playing procedures, including
    1. identification and selection of an appropriate instrument;
    2. identification of the parts of the instrument;
    3. procedures for care of the instrument;
    4. proper playing posture and instrument position;
    5. wind student—embouchure;
    6. string student—bow hold and left-hand position; and
    7. percussion student—stick grip for snare drum and mallets; setup of timpani, mallet

instruments, and auxiliary instruments.

  1. MIB.11  The student will demonstrate proper instrumental techniques, including
    1. finger/slide placement, using finger/slide patterns and fingerings/positions;
    2. matching pitches and beginning to make adjustments to facilitate correct intonation;
    3. production of tones that are clear, free of tension, and sustained;
    4. wind student—proper breathing techniques and embouchure; contrasting articulations

(tonguing, slurring, staccato, accent);

    1. string student—proper bow placement, weight, angle, and speed; contrasting articulations

(pizzicato, legato, staccato, two-note slurs); and

    1. percussion student—stick control and performance of multiple bounce roll, 5-stroke roll,

flam, flam tap, and single paradiddle, open-close-open, on snare drum (from Percussive Arts Society [PAS] International Drum Rudiments); stick control with mallets, using appropriate grip.

  1. MIB.12  The student will demonstrate ensemble skills at a beginning level, including
    1. balancing instrumental timbres;
    2. making adjustments to facilitate correct intonation;
    3. matching dynamic levels and playing style;
    4. responding to conducting patterns and gestures; and
    5. maintaining a steady beat at various tempos in the music literature being studied.
  2. MIB.13  The student will read and interpret standard music notation while performing music of varying styles and levels of difficulty, in accordance with VBODA Levels 1 and 2.
  3. MIB.14  The student will begin to use articulations, dynamic contrasts, and phrasing as means of expression.
  4. MIB.15  The student will perform simple rhythmic and melodic examples in call-and-response styles.
  5. MIB.16  The student will create, through playing and writing, rhythmic variations of four-measure selections taken from folk songs, exercises, or etudes.
  1. MIB.17  The student will demonstrate musicianship and personal engagement by
    1. identifying the characteristic sound of the instrument being studied;
    2. monitoring individual practice through the use of practice records or journals that identify

specific musical goals;

    1. participating in school performances and local, district, or regional events, as appropriate

to level, ability, and interest; and

    1. describing and demonstrating rehearsal and concert etiquette as a performer (e.g., using

critical aural skills, following conducting gestures, maintaining attention in rest position).

  1. MIB.18  The student will sight-read music of varying styles and levels of difficulty, in accordance with VBODA Levels 0 and 1.

Music History and Cultural Context

MIB.19 The student will explore historical and cultural aspects of music by

  1. identifying the cultures, musical styles, composers, and historical periods associated with

the music literature being studied;

  1. describing ways in which culture and technology influence the development of

instruments, instrumental music, and instrumental music styles;

  1. describing the relationship of instrumental music to the other fine arts and other fields of

knowledge;

  1. describing career options in music;
  2. describing ethical standards as applied to the use of social media and copyrighted

materials; and

  1. demonstrating concert etiquette as an active listener.

Analysis, Evaluation, and Critique

MIB.20 The student will analyze and evaluate music by

  1. describing the importance of cultural influences and historical context for the

interpretation of works of music;

  1. describing and interpreting works of music, using inquiry skills and music terminology;
  2. describing accepted criteria used for evaluating works of music;
  3. describing performances of music, using music terminology; and
  4. describing accepted criteria used for critiquing musical performances of self and others.

Aesthetics

MIB.21 The student will investigate aesthetic concepts related to music by

  1. proposing a definition of music and supporting that definition;
  2. identifying reasons for preferences among works of music, using music terminology;
  3. identifying ways in which music evokes sensory, emotional, and intellectual responses,

including ways in which music can be persuasive; and

  1. describing aesthetic criteria used for determining the quality of a work of music or

importance of a musical style.

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Middle School Instrumental Music, Intermediate Level

The standards for Middle School Instrumental Music, Intermediate Level enable students to continue to develop basic musicianship and music literacy. Students use more articulations and bowings, perform scales and music in a wider range of keys, and perform music at Solo Literature Grade Levels 1–3 of the Virginia Band and Orchestra Directors Association (VBODA). Ensemble skills become more developed as students participate in intermediate-level ensemble settings. Through playing and writing, students create melodic variations. Students compare and contrast career options in music. They describe musical concepts, respond to music, investigate the relationship of music to other disciplines, and analyze various cultures, musical styles, composers, and historical periods. Students are provided with opportunities to participate in local, district, and regional events.

Music Theory/Literacy

  1. MII.1  The student will echo, read, and notate music, including
    1. identifying, defining, and using standard notation for pitch, rhythm, meter, articulation,

dynamics, and other elements of music; and

    1. singing independent parts selected from the music being studied.
  1. MII.2  The student will echo, read, and perform rhythms and rhythmic patterns, including sixteenth notes, eighth-note triplets, dotted eighth notes, corresponding rests, and syncopations.
  2. MII.3  The student will identify, read, and perform music in (alla breve or cut time) and meters.
  3. MII.4  The student will identify and notate key signatures of scales and literature being performed.
  4. MII.5  The student will read, perform, and notate scales, including
    1. wind/mallet student—ascending and descending concert C, G, and D major scales; a G

harmonic minor scale; a chromatic scale; and

    1. string student—one-octave C and F major scales and two-octave G and D major scales

(double bass dropping to lower string as needed).

  1. MII.6  The student will identify and perform music written in rondo and ternary forms.
  2. MII.7  The student will use music composition as a means of expression by
    1. composing a four-measure rhythmic-melodic variation; and
    2. notating the composition in standard notation, using contemporary technology.
  3. MII.8  The student will define and apply music terminology found in the music literature being studied.

Performance

MII.9 The student will demonstrate preparatory playing procedures, including

  1. care and basic maintenance of the instrument;
  2. consistent use of proper playing posture, instrument position, and hand positions;
  3. basic tuning of the instrument, with and without an electronic tuner;
  4. wind student—consistent use of proper embouchure; and
  5. percussion student—stick grip for snare drum and mallets; basic tuning of two timpani;

setup of timpani, mallet instruments, and auxiliary instruments.

  1. MII.10  The student will demonstrate proper instrumental techniques, including
    1. adjusting and perfecting intonation while playing;
    2. producing tones that are clear, free of tension, sustained, and unwavering in pitch;
    3. wind student—proper breathing techniques and embouchure; contrasting articulations

(legato, marcato);

    1. string student—proper bow placement, weight, angle, speed, and pressure; contrasting

articulations (détaché, accents, hooked bowing, multiple-note slurs, slurred staccato,

sforzando); and

    1. percussion student—9-stroke roll, drag, drag paradiddle, flam accent, flamacue, single

drag tap, double drag tap, and Lesson 25, open-close-open, on snare drum (PAS); playing techniques on timpani, mallet, and auxiliary instruments, including single-stroke roll.

  1. MII.11  The student will demonstrate ensemble skills at an intermediate level, including
    1. balancing and blending instrumental timbres;
    2. making adjustments to facilitate correct intonation;
    3. matching dynamic levels and playing style;
    4. responding to conducting patterns and gestures; and
    5. maintaining a steady beat at various tempos in the music literature being studied.
  2. MII.12  The student will read and interpret standard music notation while performing music of varying styles and levels of difficulty, in accordance with VBODA Levels 1–3.
  3. MII.13  The student will demonstrate use of articulations, dynamic contrasts, and phrasing as means of expression.
  4. MII.14  The student will perform simple rhythmic and melodic examples in call-and-response styles.
  5. MII.15  The student will create, through playing and writing, rhythmic and melodic variations of four- to-eight-measure selections taken from folk songs, exercises, or etudes.
  6. MII.16  The student will demonstrate musicianship and personal engagement by
    1. making adjustments to facilitate correct intonation;
    2. identifying and producing the characteristic sound of the instrument being studied;
    3. monitoring individual practice with a level of refinement that reflects specific musical

goals;

    1. participating in curricular and co-curricular school performances and local, district, or

regional events, as appropriate to level, ability, and interest; and

    1. describing and demonstrating rehearsal and concert etiquette as a performer (e.g., using

critical aural skills, following conducting gestures, maintaining attention in rest position).

  1. MII.17  The student will sight-read music of varying styles and levels of difficulty, in accordance with VBODA Levels 1 and 2.

Music History and Cultural Context

MII.18 The student will explore historical and cultural aspects of music by

  1. describing the cultures, musical styles, composers, and historical periods associated with

the music literature being studied;

  1. comparing and contrasting a variety of musical styles, using music terminology;
  2. comparing and contrasting the functions of instrumental music in a variety of cultures;
  3. describing how musicians, consumers of music, and music advocates impact the

community;

  1. comparing and contrasting career options in music;
  2. relating instrumental music to the other fine arts;
  3. applying ethical standards in the use of social media and copyrighted materials; and
  4. consistently demonstrating concert etiquette as an active listener.

Analysis, Evaluation, and Critique

MII.19 The student will analyze and evaluate music by

  1. explaining the importance of cultural influences and historical context for the

interpretation of works of music;

  1. interpreting works of music, using inquiry skills and music terminology;
  2. applying accepted criteria for analyzing and evaluating works of music;
  3. describing performances of music, using music terminology; and
  4. applying accepted criteria for critiquing musical performances of self and others.

Aesthetics

MII.20 The student will investigate aesthetic concepts related to music by

  1. explaining how the factors of time and place influence the characteristics that give

meaning and value to a work of music;

  1. describing personal responses to works of music, using music terminology;
  2. analyzing ways in which music can evoke emotion and be persuasive; and
  3. applying aesthetic criteria for determining the quality of a work of music or importance

of a musical style.

Middle School Instrumental Music, Advanced Level

The standards for Middle School Instrumental Music, Advanced Level enable students to acquire more advanced technical and expressive skills and demonstrate a mature level of musicianship. Students demonstrate a variety of articulations, bowings, positions, alternate fingerings, and vibrato while playing the required scales, arpeggios, and rudiments in more complex rhythmic patterns. Percussion students become more proficient in the use of mallet instruments, timpani, and auxiliary instruments. Through playing and writing, students create expressive rhythmic and melodic variations. Students research career options in music. They perform music at Solo Literature Grade Levels 2–4 of the Virginia Band and Orchestra Directors Association (VBODA). Students discuss and evaluate characteristics of personal performances and compositions, as well as the works of others. Students are provided with opportunities to participate in local, district, and regional events.

Music Theory/Literacy

  1. MIAD.1  The student will read and notate music, including
    1. identifying, defining, and using advanced standard notation for pitch, rhythm, meter,

articulation, dynamics, and other elements of music; and

    1. singing assigned parts in combination with other parts from the music being studied.
  1. MIAD.2  The student will read, perform, and compose rhythms and rhythmic patterns that include quarter-note triplets and corresponding rests.
  2. MIAD.3  The student will identify, read, and perform music in complex meters, including
    1. identifying, reading, and performing compound meters ( , );
    2. identifying, reading, and performing simple mixed meters; and
    3. identifying asymmetrical meters.
  3. MIAD.4  The student will identify and notate key signatures of scales and literature being performed.
  4. MIAD.5  The student will read, perform, and notate scales, including
    1. wind/mallet student—ascending and descending concert C, F, B-flat, E-flat, A-flat, G, D

A, and E major scales; G and D harmonic minor scales; an extended chromatic scale,

commensurate with VBODA district requirements; and

    1. string student—two-octave C, F, B-flat, G, D, and A major scales and A, D, and E

harmonic minor scales, commensurate with VBODA regional requirements.

  1. MIAD.6  The student will identify and perform music written in theme-and-variations form.
  2. MIAD.7  The student will use music composition as a means of expression by
    1. composing an eight-measure rhythmic-melodic variation; and
    2. notating the composition in standard notation, using contemporary technology.
  3. MIAD.8  The student will define and consistently apply music terminology found in the music literature being studied.

Performance

  1. MIAD.9  The student will independently demonstrate preparatory playing procedures, including
    1. procedures for care and maintenance of the instrument;
    2. consistent use of proper playing posture, instrument position, and hand positions;
    3. tuning of the instrument, with and without an external source;
    4. wind student—adjustment of embouchure, as appropriate; and
    5. percussion student—tuning of three or more timpani to a reference pitch; stick grip for

snare drum and mallets; setup of timpani, mallet instruments, and auxiliary instruments.

  1. MIAD.10  The student will demonstrate proper instrumental techniques, including
    1. consistently adjusting and perfecting intonation while playing;
    2. producing tones that are clear, free of tension, sustained, and centered in pitch;
    3. wind student—proper breathing techniques and embouchure; various articulations

(tenuto, sforzando);

    1. string student—proper bow placement, weight, angle, speed, and pressure; various

articulations (brush stroke, tremolo); a beginning vibrato motion; shifting to higher

positions as needed; and

    1. percussion student—13 rudiments (Percussive Arts Society), open-close-open, on snare

drum; tuning timpani while playing; playing techniques on mallet and auxiliary instruments.

  1. MIAD.11  The student will demonstrate ensemble skills at an advanced level, including
    1. balancing and blending instrumental timbres;
    2. matching dynamic levels, playing style, and intonation;
    3. responding to conducting patterns and gestures; and
    4. maintaining a steady beat at various tempos and performing tempo changes in the music literature being studied.
  2. MIAD.12  The student will read and interpret standard music notation while performing music of varying styles and levels of difficulty, in accordance with VBODA Levels 2–4.
  3. MIAD.13  The student will consistently use articulations, dynamic contrasts, and phrasing as means of expression.
  4. MIAD.14  The student will perform increasingly complex rhythmic and melodic examples in call-and- response styles.
  5. MIAD.15  The student will create, through playing and writing, rhythmic and melodic variations of selections taken from folk songs, exercises, or etudes, incorporating a variety of expressive elements.
  6. MIAD.16  The student will demonstrate musicianship and personal engagement by
    1. making adjustments to facilitate correct intonation;
    2. producing the characteristic sound of the instrument being studied;
    3. monitoring individual practice with a level of refinement that reflects advanced musical

goals;

    1. participating in curricular and co-curricular performances and local, district, or regional

events, as appropriate to level, ability, and interest; and

    1. describing and demonstrating rehearsal and concert etiquette as a performer (e.g., using

critical aural skills, following conducting gestures, maintaining attention in rest position).

  1. MIAD.17  The student will sight-read music of varying styles and levels of difficulty, in accordance with VBODA Levels 1–3.

Music History and Cultural Context

MIAD.18 The student will explore historical and cultural aspects of music by

  1. analyzing the cultures, musical styles, composers, and historical periods associated with

the music literature being studied;

  1. comparing and contrasting a variety of musical periods and styles, using music

terminology;

  1. analyzing the characteristics of instrumental music from a variety of cultures;
  2. describing opportunities for music performance and advocacy within the community;
  3. researching career options in music;
  4. explaining the relationship of instrumental music to other fields of knowledge;
  5. researching the use and misuse of ethical standards as applied to social media and

copyrighted materials; and

  1. consistently demonstrating exemplary concert etiquette as an active listener.

Analysis, Evaluation, and Critique

MIAD.19 The student will analyze and evaluate music by

  1. comparing and contrasting the importance of composers’ use of style, cultural influences,

and historical context for the interpretation of works of music;

  1. examining ways in which personal experiences influence critical judgment about works

of music and musical performances;

  1. applying accepted criteria for analyzing and evaluating works of music;
  2. describing performances of music, using music terminology; and
  3. applying accepted criteria for critiquing musical performances of self and others.

Aesthetics

MIAD.20 The student will investigate aesthetic concepts related to music by

  1. analyzing personal responses to works of music, using music terminology;
  2. analyzing aesthetic criteria used for evaluating works of music or critiquing musical

performances; and

  1. identifying the value of musical performance to society.