Grade Six

 

In sixth grade, students continue to build upon skills previously taught in earlier grades.  There is a continued emphasis on reading comprehension by comparing fiction and nonfiction texts. In fiction texts, students will identify elements of narrative structure including identifying theme and analyzing figurative language.  In sixth grade, there is an increased emphasis on nonfiction reading by creating objective summaries and drawing inferences using textual evidence. The student will begin the study of word origins and continue vocabulary development.  The student will also plan, draft, revise, and edit writing in a variety of forms with an emphasis on narrative and reflective writing. Students will continue to deliver multimodal presentations individually and in collaborative groups. Students will also interpret information presented in diverse media formats. The student will find, evaluate, and select appropriate resources for a research product and cite both primary and secondary sources. As in earlier grades, the meaning and consequences of plagiarism will be stressed.

Communication and Multimodal Literacies

6.1 The student will use effective oral communication skills in a variety of settings.

a)   Listen actively and speak using appropriate discussion rules with awareness of verbal and nonverbal cues.

b)   Participate as a facilitator and a contributor in a group.

c)   Participate in collaborative discussions with partners building on others’ ideas.

d)   Ask questions to clarify the speaker’s purpose and perspective.

e)   Summarize the main points a speaker makes.

f)   Summarize and evaluate group activities.

g)   Analyze the effectiveness of participant interactions.

h)   Evaluate own contributions to discussions.

i)    Demonstrate the ability to collaborate with diverse teams.

j)    Work respectfully with others and show value for individual contributions.

6.2. The student will create multimodal presentations that effectively communicate ideas.

a)   Use effective verbal and nonverbal communication skills to deliver multimodal presentations.

b)   Use language and vocabulary appropriate to audience, topic, and purpose.

c)   Give collaborative and individual formal and informal interactive presentations.  

d)   Paraphrase and summarize key ideas of a presentation.

6.3 The student will determine the purpose of media messages and examine how they are constructed.

a)   Compare and contrast techniques used in a variety of media messages.

b)   Identify the characteristics and effectiveness of a variety of media messages.

c)   Interpret information presented in diverse media formats and explain how it contributes to the topic.

d)   Craft and publish audience-specific media messages.

 

Reading

6.4 The student will read and determine the meanings of unfamiliar words and phrases within authentic texts.

a)   Identify word origins and derivations.

b)   Use roots, affixes, synonyms, and antonyms to expand vocabulary.

c)   Use context and sentence structure to determine meanings and differentiate among multiple meanings of words.

d)   Identify and analyze the construction and impact of figurative language.

e)   Use word-reference materials.

f)   Extend general and cross-curricular vocabulary through speaking, listening, reading, and writing.

6.5 The student will read and demonstrate comprehension of a variety of fictional texts, literary nonfiction, and poetry.

a)   Identify the elements of narrative structure, including setting, character, plot, conflict, and theme.

b)   Describe cause and effect relationships and their impact on plot.

c)   Explain how an author uses character development to drive conflict and resolution.

d)   Differentiate between first and third person point-of-view.

e)   Describe how word choice and imagery contribute to the meaning of a text.

f)   Draw conclusions and make inferences using the text for support.

g)   Identify the characteristics of a variety of genres.

h)   Identify and analyze the author’s use of figurative language.

i)    Compare/contrast details in literary and informational nonfiction texts.

j)    Identify transitional words and phrases that signal an author’s organizational pattern.

k)   Use reading strategies to monitor comprehension throughout the reading process.

6.6 The student will read and demonstrate comprehension of a variety of nonfiction texts.

a)   Skim materials using text features such as type, headings, and graphics to predict and categorize information.

b)   Identify main idea.

c)   Summarize supporting details.

d)   Create an objective summary including main idea and supporting details.

e)   Draw conclusions and make inferences based on explicit and implied information.          

f)   Identify the author’s organizational pattern(s).

g)   Identify transitional words and phrases that signal an author’s organizational pattern.

h)   Differentiate between fact and opinion.

i)    Identify cause and effect relationships.

j)    Analyze ideas within and between selections providing textual evidence.

k)   Use reading strategies to monitor comprehension throughout the reading process.

 

Writing

6.7 The student will write in a variety of forms to include narrative, expository, persuasive, and reflective with an emphasis on narrative and reflective writing.

a)   Engage in writing as a recursive process.

b)   Choose audience and purpose.  

c)   Use a variety of prewriting strategies to generate and organize ideas.

d)   Organize writing to fit mode or topic.

e)   Write narratives to include characters, plot, setting, and point of view.

f)   Establish a central idea incorporating evidence and maintaining an organized structure. 

g)   Compose a thesis statement for expository and persuasive writing.

h)   Write multiparagraph compositions with elaboration and unity.

i)    Use transition words and phrases. 

j)    Select vocabulary and information to enhance the central idea, tone, and voice.

k)   Expand and embed ideas by using modifiers, standard coordination, and subordination in complete sentences.

l)    Revise writing for clarity of content including specific vocabulary and information.


 

6.8 The student will self- and peer-edit writing for capitalization, punctuation, spelling, sentence structure, paragraphing, and Standard English.

a)   Use subject-verb agreement with intervening phrases and clauses.

b)   Use pronoun-antecedent agreement to include indefinite pronouns.

c)   Maintain consistent verb tense across paragraphs.

d)   Eliminate double negatives.

e)   Use quotation marks with dialogue.

f)   Choose adverbs to describe verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs.

g)   Use correct spelling for frequently used words.

h)   Use subordinating and coordinating conjunctions.

 

Research

6.9 The student will find, evaluate, and select appropriate resources to create a research product.

a)   Formulate and revise questions about a research topic.

b)   Collect and organize information from multiple sources.

c)   Evaluate and analyze the validity and credibility of sources. 

d)   Cite primary and secondary sources.

e)   Avoid plagiarism by using own words and follow ethical and legal guidelines for gathering and using information.

f)   Demonstrate ethical use of the Internet.

 


Grade Seven

 

In seventh grade, students continue to build upon skills previously taught in earlier grades.  There is a continued emphasis on reading comprehension by comparing fiction and nonfiction texts. In fiction texts, students will identify elements of a variety of genres while focusing on an author’s style.  In seventh grade, there is an increased emphasis on nonfiction reading, and students will identify the source, point-of-view, and purpose of texts. The student will continue the study of word origins and roots and begin identifying connotations. The student will also plan, draft, revise, and edit writing in a variety of forms with an emphasis on expository and persuasive writing. Students will write to develop and modify a central idea, tone, and voice to fit the audience and purpose.  Students will continue to deliver multimodal presentations individually and in collaborative groups. Students will also interpret information presented in diverse media formats. Students share responsibility for collaborative work, as both a contributor and a facilitator, while working for consensus to accomplish goals. The student will apply research techniques to quote, summarize, and paraphrase research findings while properly citing sources. As in earlier grades, the meaning and consequences of plagiarism will be stressed.

Communication and Multimodal Literacies

7.1 The student will participate in and contribute to conversations, group discussions, and oral presentations.

a)   Use a variety of strategies to listen actively and speak using agreed upon discussion rules with awareness of verbal and nonverbal cues.

b)   Clearly communicate ideas and information orally in an organized and succinct manner.

c)   Ask probing questions to seek elaboration and clarification of ideas.

d)   Participate in collaborative discussions with partners building on others’ ideas.

e)   Make statements to communicate agreement or tactful disagreement with others’ ideas.

f)   Use language and style appropriate to audience, topic, and purpose.

g)   Give formal and informal presentations in a group or individually, providing evidence to support a main idea.

h)   Work effectively and respectfully within diverse groups.

i)    Exhibit willingness to make necessary compromises to accomplish a goal.

j)    Share responsibility for collaborative work.

7.2 The student will create multimodal presentations both individually and in a group that effectively communicate ideas.

a)   Select, organize, and create content to complement and extend meaning for a selected topic.

b)   Use effective verbal and nonverbal communication skills to deliver multimodal presentations.

c)   Use language and vocabulary appropriate to audience, topic, and purpose.

d)   Paraphrase and summarize a speaker’s key ideas.

7.3 The student will examine the elements of media literacy.

a)   Identify persuasive/informative techniques used in media.

b)   Distinguish between fact and opinion, and between evidence and inference.

c)   Describe how word choice, visual images, and sound convey a viewpoint.

d)   Compare and contrast the effectiveness of techniques in auditory, visual, and written media messages.

e)   Craft and publish audience-specific media messages.


 

Reading

7.4 The student will read and determine the meanings of unfamiliar words and phrases within authentic texts.

a)   Identify word origins and derivations.

b)   Use roots, affixes, synonyms, and antonyms to expand vocabulary.

c)   Identify and analyze the construction and impact of figurative language.

d)   Identify connotations.

e)   Use context and sentence structure to determine meanings and differentiate among multiple meanings of words.

f)   Use word-reference materials to determine meanings and etymology.

g)   Extend general and cross-curricular vocabulary through speaking, listening, reading, and writing.

7.5 The student will read and demonstrate comprehension of a variety of fictional texts, literary nonfiction, poetry, and drama.

a)   Describe the elements of narrative structure including setting, character development, plot, theme, and conflict and how they influence each other.

b)   Identify and explain the theme(s).

c)   Identify cause and effect relationships and their impact on plot.

d)   Differentiate between first and third person point-of-view.

e)   Identify elements and characteristics of a variety of genres.

f)   Compare and contrast various forms and genres of fictional text.

g)   Describe the impact of word choice, imagery, and literary devices including figurative language in an author’s style.

h)   Compare/contrast details in literary and informational nonfiction texts.

i)    Make inferences and draw conclusions based on the text.

j)    Use reading strategies to monitor comprehension throughout the reading process.

7.6 The student will read and demonstrate comprehension of a variety of nonfiction texts.

a)   Skim materials using text features including type, headings, and graphics to predict and categorize information.

b)   Identify an author’s organizational pattern using textual clues, such as transitional words and phrases. 

c)   Make inferences and draw logical conclusions using explicit and implied textual evidence.  

d)   Differentiate between fact and opinion. 

e)   Identify the source, viewpoint, and purpose of texts.      

f)   Describe how word choice and language structure convey an author’s viewpoint.

g)   Identify the main idea.

h)   Summarize text identifying supporting details.

i)    Create an objective summary including main idea and supporting details.

j)    Identify cause and effect relationships.

k)   Organize and synthesize information for use in written and other formats.

l)    Analyze ideas within and between selections providing textual evidence.

m)  Use reading strategies to monitor comprehension throughout the reading process.

 


 

Writing

7.7 The student will write in a variety of forms to include narrative, expository, persuasive, and reflective with an emphasis on expository and persuasive writing.

a)   Engage in writing as a recursive process.

b)   Choose intended audience and purpose.

c)   Use a variety of prewriting strategies to generate and organize ideas.

d)   Organize writing structure to fit form or topic.

e)   Establish a central idea incorporating evidence, while maintaining an organized structure and a formal style.

f)   Compose a thesis statement for persuasive writing that includes a position.         

g)   Clearly state a position and organize reasons and evidence, using credible sources.

h)   Distinguish between fact and opinion to support a position.        

i)    Write multiparagraph compositions with elaboration and unity.

j)    Use transition words and phrases within and between paragraphs.

k)   Develop and modify the central idea, tone, and voice to fit the audience and purpose.

l)    Expand and embed ideas by using modifiers, standard coordination, and subordination in complete sentences.

m)  Use clauses and phrases for sentence variety.

n)   Revise writing for clarity of content including specific vocabulary and information.

7.8 The student will self- and peer-edit writing for capitalization, punctuation, spelling, sentence structure, paragraphing, and Standard English.

a)   Choose appropriate adjectives and adverbs to enhance writing.

b)   Use pronoun-antecedent agreement to include indefinite pronouns.        

c)   Use subject-verb agreement with intervening phrases and clauses.

d)   Edit for verb tense consistency and point of view.

e)   Use quotation marks with dialogue and direct quotations.

f)   Use correct spelling for commonly used words.

 

Research

7.9 The student will find, evaluate, and select appropriate resources to create a research product.

a)   Formulate and revise questions about a research topic.

b)   Collect, organize, and synthesize information from multiple sources.

c)   Analyze and evaluate the validity and credibility of resources.

d)   Quote, summarize, and paraphrase information from primary and secondary sources using proper citations.

e)   Avoid plagiarism by using own words and follow ethical and legal guidelines for gathering and using information.

f)   Demonstrate ethical use of the Internet.

 


Grade Eight

 

In eighth grade, students continue to build upon skills previously learned in earlier grades. There is a continued emphasis on reading comprehension by comparing fiction and nonfiction texts. In fiction texts, students will explain the development of theme(s), and compare/contrast authors’ styles.  In eighth grade, there will be an increased emphasis on nonfiction reading, and students will analyze authors’ qualifications, point-of-view, and style. The student will continue the study of word origins, roots, connotations, and denotations. The student will also plan, draft, revise, and edit while writing in a variety of forms with an emphasis on expository and persuasive writing. Students will compose a thesis statement and defend a position with reasons and evidence. Students will evaluate, analyze, develop, and produce media messages. Students will create multimodal presentations that include different points-of-view, and collaborate with others to exchange ideas, make decisions, and solve problems. The student will apply research techniques to analyze information gathered from diverse sources by identifying misconceptions and possible bias.  Students will also cite primary and secondary sources using either MLA or APA style sheet. As in earlier grades, the meaning and consequences of plagiarism will be stressed.

Communication and Multimodal Literacies

8.1 The student will participate in, collaborate in, and report on small-group learning activities.

a)   Assume responsibility for specific group tasks and share responsibility for collaborative work within diverse teams.

b)   Exhibit willingness to make necessary compromises to accomplish a goal.

c)   Collaborate with others to exchange ideas, develop new understandings, make decisions, and solve problems.

d)   Include all group members, and value individual contributions made by each group member.

e)   Make statements to communicate agreement or tactful disagreement with others’ ideas.

f)   Use a variety of strategies to listen actively and speak using appropriate discussion rules with awareness of verbal and nonverbal cues.

g)   Use self-reflection to evaluate one’s own role in preparation and participation in small-group activities.

8.2 The student will develop and deliver multimodal, interactive presentations collaboratively and individually.

a)   Select, organize, and create multimodal content that encompasses opposing points of view.

b)   Choose vocabulary and tone appropriate to the audience, topic, and purpose.

c)   Use effective verbal and nonverbal communication skills to deliver multimodal presentations.

d)   Cite information sources.

e)   Respond to audience questions and comments.

f)   Differentiate between Standard English and informal language.

g)   Evaluate presentations.

8.3 The student will analyze, develop, and produce creative or informational media messages.

a)   Analyze the purpose of information and persuasive techniques used in diverse media formats.

b)   Examine how values and viewpoints are included or excluded and how the media can influence beliefs, behaviors, and interpretations.

c)   Use media and visual literacy skills to create products to express new understandings.

d)   Evaluate sources for relationships between intent and factual content.

e)   Utilize multimedia to clarify information and emphasize differing points of view.

f)   Evaluate the motives (e.g., social, commercial, political) behind media presentation(s).

g)   Demonstrate the ethical use of the Internet when evaluating or producing creative or informational media messages.


 

Reading

8.4 The student will apply knowledge of word origins, and figurative language to extend vocabulary development within authentic texts.

a)   Identify and analyze the construction and impact of an author’s use of figurative language.

b)   Use context, structure, and connotations to determine meaning and differentiate among multiple meanings of words and phrases.

c)   Use roots, affixes, synonyms, and antonyms to determine the meaning(s) of unfamiliar words and technical vocabulary.

d)   Identify the meaning of common idioms.

e)   Use word-reference materials to determine meanings and etymology.

f)   Discriminate between connotative and denotative meanings and interpret the connotation. 

g)   Extend general and cross-curricular vocabulary through speaking, listening, reading, and writing.

8.5 The student will read and analyze a variety of fictional texts, literary nonfiction, poetry, and drama.

a)   Analyze how authors’ development of characters, conflict, point of view, voice, and tone convey meaning.

b)   Identify cause and effect relationships and their impact on plot.

c)   Explain the development of the theme(s).

d)   Explain the use of symbols and figurative language.

e)   Make inferences and draw conclusions based on explicit and implied information using references to the text for support.

f)   Identify and analyze characteristics within a variety of genres.

g)   Compare/contrast details in literary and informational nonfiction texts.

h)   Compare and contrast the authors’ use of word choice, dialogue, form, rhyme, rhythm, and voice in different texts.

i)    Compare and contrast authors’ styles.

j)    Use reading strategies to monitor comprehension throughout the reading process.

8.6 The student will read, comprehend, and analyze a variety of nonfiction texts.

a)   Identify an author’s organizational pattern using textual clues, such as transitional words and phrases.

b)   Apply knowledge of text features and organizational patterns to analyze selections.

c)   Skim materials to develop an overview or locate information.

d)   Make inferences and draw conclusions based on explicit and implied information using evidence from text as support.

e)   Analyze the author’s qualifications, viewpoint, word choice, and impact.

f)   Analyze details for relevance and accuracy.      

g)   Differentiate between fact and opinion. 

h)   Identify the main idea.

i)    Summarize the text identifying supporting details.         

j)    Identify cause and effect relationships.

k)   Evaluate, organize, and synthesize information for use in written and other formats.

l)    Analyze ideas within and between selections providing textual evidence.

m)  Use reading strategies to monitor comprehension throughout the reading process.


 

Writing

8.7 The student will write in a variety of forms to include narrative, expository, persuasive, and reflective with an emphasis on expository and persuasive writing.

a)   Engage in writing as a recursive process.

b)   Choose intended audience and purpose.

c)   Use prewriting strategies to generate and organize ideas.

d)   Organize writing structure to fit form or topic.

e)   Establish a central idea incorporating evidence, maintaining an organized structure and formal style.

f)   Compose a thesis statement for persuasive writing that advocates a position.

g)   Clearly state and defend a position with reasons and evidence, from credible sources.

h)   Identify a counterclaim and provide a counter - argument.

i)    Distinguish between fact and opinion to support a position.

j)    Organize information to provide elaboration and unity.

k)   Develop and modify the central idea, tone, and voice to fit the audience and purpose.

l)    Revise writing for clarity of content, word choice, sentence variety, and transitions among paragraphs.

8.8 The student will self- and peer-edit writing for capitalization, punctuation, spelling, sentence structure, paragraphing, and Standard English.

a)   Use and punctuate correctly varied sentence structures to include conjunctions and transition words.

b)   Correctly use pronouns in prepositional phrases with compound objects.

c)   Use a variety of sentence structures to infuse sentence variety in writing.

d)   Maintain consistent verb tense across paragraphs.

e)   Use comparative and superlative degrees in adverbs and adjectives.

f)   Use quotation marks with dialogue and direct quotations.

g)   Use correct spelling for frequently used words.

 

Research

8.9 The student will find, evaluate, select, and synthesize appropriate resources to produce a research product.

a)   Formulate and revise questions about a research topic.  

b)   Collect and synthesize information from multiple sources.

c)   Evaluate and analyze the validity and credibility of resources.

d)   Analyze information gathered from diverse sources by identifying misconceptions, main and supporting ideas, conflicting information, point of view, or bias. 

e)   Cite primary and secondary sources using Modern Language Association (MLA) or American Psychological Association (APA) style.

f)   Quote, summarize and paraphrase research findings.

g)   Publish findings and respond to feedback.

h)   Avoid plagiarism by using own words and follow ethical and legal guidelines for gathering and using information.

i)    Demonstrate ethical use of the Internet.